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ChatGPT was released to the public in November 30, 2022. This study examines how ChatGPT can be used by educators and students to promote learning and what are the challenges and limitations. This study is unique in providing one of the first systematic reviews using peer review studies to provide an early examination of the field. Using PRISMA principles, 44 articles were selected for review. Grounded coding was then used to reveal trends in the data. The findings show that educators can use ChatGPT for teaching support, task automation, and professional development. These were further delineated further by axial sub codes. Eight student uses were 24/7 support, explain difficult concepts, conversational partner, personalized feedback and materials, provide writing support, offer self-assessment, facilitate engagement, and self-determination. In addition to be affordances of the AI, the data from the articles also showed limitations to ChatGPT and misuses, specifically, inaccuracies and hallucinations, potential bias, and tool limitations. Misuses are plagiarism and cheating, privacy issues and spread of false information. This study is a springboard for researchers, practitioners, policy makers and funders in understanding the emerging state of the field of ChatGPT.


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Article states: "Data is available on request to the corresponding author."

Original Publication Citation

Crompton, H., & Burke, D. (2024). The educational affordances and challenges of ChatGPT: State of the field. TechTrends, 68(2), 380-392.


0000-0002-1775-8219 (Crompton), 0000-0002-8214-0386 (Burke)