International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl) represents a threat to public health. Children may inhale higher doses and develop greater injury because of their smaller airways and faster respiratory rate. We have developed a mouse model of pediatric exposure to HCl by intratracheally instilling p24 mice (mice 24 days old; 8–10 g) with 2 µL/g 0.1 N HCl, and compared the profile of lung injury to that in HCl-instilled adults (10 weeks old; 25–30 g) and their age-matched saline controls. After 30 days, alveolar inflammation was observed with increased proteinosis and mononuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in both HCl-instilled groups. Young p24 animals—but not adults—exhibited higher NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome levels. Increased amounts of Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA and its intracellular canonical and non-canonical pathways (p-Smad2 and p-ERK) were found in the lungs of both young and adult HCl-instilled mice. Constitutive age-related differences were observed in the levels of heat shock protein family (HSP70 and HSP90). HCl equally provoked the deposition of collagen and fibronectin; however, significant age-dependent differences were observed in the increase in elastin and tenascin C mRNA. HCl induced pulmonary fibrosis with an increased Ashcroft score, which was higher in adults, and a reduction in alveolar Mean Alveolar Linear Intercept (MALI). Young mice developed increased Newtonian resistance (Rn) and lower PV loops, while adults showed a higher respiratory system resistance and elastance. This data indicate that young p24 mice can suffer long-term complications from a single exposure to HCl, and can develop chronic lung injury characterized by a stronger persistent inflammation and lesser fibrotic pattern, mostly in the airways, differently from adults. Further data are required to characterize HCl time- and dose-dependent injury in young animals and to identify new key-molecular targets.
Original Publication Citation
Colunga Biancatelli, R. M. L., Solopov, P., Dimitropoulou, C., & Catravas, J. D. (2021). Age-dependent chronic lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis following single exposure to hydrochloric acid. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(16), 1-15, Article 8833. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168833
Colunga Biancatelli, Ruben M.L.; Solopov, Pavel; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; and Catravas, John D., "Age-Dependent Chronic Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Following Single Exposure to Hydrochloric Acid" (2021). Bioelectrics Publications. 312.
0000-0002-1174-3876 (Colunga Biancatelli), 0000-0002-1705-027X (Solopov), 0000-0002-5098-295X (Catravas)