Date of Award

Summer 1987

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Chemistry & Biochemistry



Committee Director

Frank E. Scully, Jr.

Committee Member

Roy L. Williams

Committee Member

Mark S. Elliott

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.C45M49


Using chlorine as a drinking water disinfectant may have potential health effects due to its reactivity with organic amino nitrogen compounds found in the stomach. Organic N-chloramines have been shown to form in the stomachs of laboratory rats. The possible reactions of N-chloramines in the stomach fluid were examined in this study using a model radiolabeled N-chloramine. 36Cl-N-Chloropiperidine, was synthesized and purified to remove 36Cl-chloride. Stomach fluid was obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats which had been first fasted for 24 or 48 hours and then administered 3 mL of deionized water. Different concentrations of radiolabeled chloramine were reacted with the stomach fluid at 37°c for either 30 or 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to separate the 36Cl-chlorinecontaining products and then quantitated by determining the radioactivity of the resulting fractions by liquid scintillation counting. The results showed as much as 30% of the labeled chloramine reacted with organics in the stomach fluid. The amount of chlorine-containing by-products formed and the amount of N-chloropiperidine reduced depends on the pH of the fluid, the temperature of reaction, the concentration of of chloramine used, and differences between rats.

The unknown 36Cl-chlorine-containing products were then characterized by gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, and dialysis to determine the molecular weight range.

The 36Cl-labeled N-chloropiperidine was also reacted with several different types of biomolecules to characterize the chlorinated products which form. The compounds used included glycosylated bovine serum albumin and commerial mucin from the stomach of bovine, which contains various mucoproteins typically found in the secretions of the stomach. Results show little reaction with the glycoprote5n and significant chlorinated product formation with the mucin.

The different reaction pathways of 36Cl-N-chloropiperidine were then quantitated by reacting increasing concentrations of chloramine with a pooled sample of rat stomach fluid at different pH values. The amount of chloramine reduced was determined by passing the reaction mixture through an anion exchange resin, to remove 36Cl-chloride produced, and determining the total radioactivity in the eluate by liquid scintillation counting. The eluate contained both the labeled N-chloropiperidine and any chlorine-containing products.


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