Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews






e00062-19 (1-25)


Although enteroviruses are associated with a wide variety of diseases and conditions, their mode of replication is well conserved. Their genome is carried as a single, positive-sense RNA strand. At the 5′ end of the strand is an approximately 90-nucleotide self-complementary region called the 5′ cloverleaf, or the oriL. This noncoding region serves as a platform upon which host and virus proteins, including the 3B, 3C, and 3D virus proteins, assemble in order to initiate replication of a negative-sense RNA strand. The negative strand in turn serves as a template for synthesis of multiple positive-sense RNA strands. Building on structural studies of individual RNA stem-loops, the structure of the intact 5′ cloverleaf from rhinovirus has recently been determined via nuclear magnetic resonance/small-angle X-ray scattering (NMR/SAXS)-based methods, while structures have also been determined for enterovirus 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D proteins. Analysis of these structures, together with structural and modeling studies of interactions between host and virus proteins and RNA, has begun to provide insight into the enterovirus replication mechanism and the potential to inhibit replication by blocking these interactions.


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Original Publication Citation

Pascal, S. M., Garimella, R., Warden, M. S., & Ponniah, K. (2020). Structural biology of the enterovirus replication-linked 5'-cloverleaf RNA and associated virus proteins. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 84(2), 1-25, Article e00062-19.