Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date




Publication Title

Student-Centered Virtual Learning Environments in Higher Education




Instructional design is an applied field of study that involves considerations for complex problem solving and authentic learning. Instructional guidance and scaffolding is particularly critical in facilitating online instructional design students, thus helping them succeed. In this chapter, the authors share how they designed and facilitated three instructional activities in three courses to scaffold a student-centered learning environment online. Using a case study approach, the authors describe their design considerations and how the instructor made decisions to incorporate external representations as a unique instructional technique into the three courses. Through student self-reporting, the instructor's formative and summative evaluation, and the authors' close review of drafts, the design process resulted in final products that were refined and noticeably improved. The authors conclude the chapter by reiterating the importance of scaffolding the problem-solving process with external representations and provide recommendations for future researchers and practitioners.


Copyright © 2019 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher.

IGI Global Authors, Under Fair Use Can:

Post the final typeset PDF (which includes the title page, table of contents and other front materials, and the copyright statement) of their chapter or article (NOT THE ENTIRE BOOK OR JOURNAL ISSUE), on the author or editor's secure personal website and/or their university repository site.

Original Publication Citation

Luo, T., & Baaki, J. (2019). Scaffolding problem-solving and instructional design processes: Engaging students in reflection-in-action and external representations in three online courses. In M. Boboc and S. Koç (Eds.), Student-centered virtual learning environments in higher education (pp. 40-69). IGI Global.


0000-0002-8138-3722 (Luo), 0000-0001-5773-2104 (Baaki)